A Note About This Chart
The median rate ranges below are based on data generated by a survey administered to EFA members in April 2020 by Venture Research Associates. The survey asked EFA members to answer questions about projects they invoiced and/or collected payments from during the 2019 calendar year.

As an association, the EFA neither sets rates nor advises members on what rates or rate structures they should choose. Individual members’ rates vary considerably depending on the nature of the work, the time frame of the assignment, the degree of special expertise required, the member’s experience, and other factors.

For the purposes of the EFA survey and this chart, a page is defined as 250 words, the industry standard for a manuscript page.

Hire a Freelancer
Need to find the right editor, right away? See our hiring page for information on how to post your ad to our Job List and connect with Editorial Freelancers Association members via our Directory. (Both are free!) Our hiring basics offer guidelines on best practices. And for new authors, we have a comprehensive guide that you can download here to help walk you through the process of hiring an editor.
Join the EFA
Individual freelancers can join the Editorial Freelancers Association for mutual support and advancement. Learn about the benefits of membership here. New to freelancing? Our Resources for New Freelance Editors is full of information on setting your rates, education and certification, building your client base, incorporating your business, and more. New to editing? See our So You Want to Be an Editor page for resources and suggestions for entering the industry.
For EFA Members
Don’t miss all your Editorial Freelancers Association resources, freebies, and discounts! Check out and bookmark the Member Area now. And see the end of this page for links to members-only information and analysis of the 2020 rates survey.
 Definitions Median Rate Per Hour Median Rate Per Word** Median Pace of Work**
COACHING/CONSULTING $61–$70/hr $.05–$.059/wd 4–6 pages/hr
COPYEDITING
Copyediting, fiction $36–$40/hr $.02–$.029/wd 7–10 pages/hr
Copyediting, nonfiction $41–$45/hr $.03–$.039/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Copyediting, business/sales $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Copyediting, medical/STEM $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT $51–$60/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
DESIGN/LAYOUT/FORMATTING
Design/layout/formatting (print) $46–$50/hr $.02–$.029/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Design/layout/formatting (electronic) $46–$50/hr $.03–$.039/wd 7–10 pages/hr
DEVELOPMENTAL EDITING
Developmental editing, fiction $46–$50/hr $.03–$.039/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Developmental editing, nonfiction $51–$60/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Developmental editing, business/sales $51–$60/hr $.07–$.079/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Developmental editing, medical/STEM $61–$70/hr $.06–$.069/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Developmental editing, book doctoring $61–$70/hr $.06–$.069/wd 4–6 pages/hr
INDEXING $36–$40/hr $.02–$.029/wd 7–10 pages/hr
LINE EDITING $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
MARKETING/PROMOTION $51–$60/hr $.08–$.089/wd 4–6 pages/hr
PERMISSIONS $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 21–25 pages/hr
PROJECT MANAGEMENT $51–$60/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
PROOFREADING
Proofreading, fiction $31–$35/hr $.02–$.029/wd 11–15 pages/hr
Proofreading, nonfiction $36–$40/hr $.02–$.029/wd 7–10 pages/hr
Proofreading, business/sales $41–$45/hr $.04–$.049/wd 7–10 pages/hr
Proofreading, medical/STEM $41–$45/hr $.03–$.039/wd 4–6 pages/hr
RESEARCH/FACT CHECKING $46–$50/hr $.05–$.059/wd 4–6 pages/hr
SENSITIVITY READS $31–$35/hr $.01–$.019/wd 11–15 pages/hr
TRANSCRIPTION $36–$40/hr $.09–$.10/wd 4–6 pages/hr
TRANSLATION $46–$50/hr $.11–$.15/wd 1–3 pages/hr
WRITING (WORK-FOR-HIRE ONLY)
Writing (work-for-hire only), ghostwriting full-length fiction $51–$60/hr $.09–$.10/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), ghostwriting full-length nonfiction $61–$70/hr $.11–$.15/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), business/sales $61–$70/hr $.16–$.20/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), medical/STEM $61–$70/hr $.16–$.20/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), journalism $51–$60/hr $.31–$.50/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), other $51–$60/hr $.21–$.30/wd 1–3 pages/hr
OTHER (based on write-in response) $41–$45/hr $.05–$.059/wd 4–6 pages/hr
**Per-word rates and pages per hour may or may not apply to all projects. Respondents were given the option of providing these responses or selecting “Other” or “N/A.” Data for each column in the rates chart was collected and generated independently. The columns are not dependent on or derived from each other.

EFA Members: For more information, see the Rates Survey Report and Rates Survey Information pages.