A Note About This Chart
The median rate ranges below are based on data generated by a survey administered to EFA members in April 2020 by Venture Research Associates. The survey asked EFA members to answer questions about projects they invoiced and/or collected payments from during the 2019 calendar year.

As an association, the EFA neither sets rates nor advises members on what rates or rate structures they should choose. Individual members’ rates vary considerably depending on the nature of the work, the time frame of the assignment, the degree of special expertise required, the member’s experience, and other factors.

For the purposes of the EFA survey and this chart, a page is defined as 250 words, the industry standard for a manuscript page.

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 Definitions Median Rate Per Hour Median Rate Per Word** Median Pace of Work**
COACHING/CONSULTING $61–$70/hr $.05–$.059/wd 4–6 pages/hr
COPYEDITING
Copyediting, fiction $36–$40/hr $.02–$.029/wd 7–10 pages/hr
Copyediting, nonfiction $41–$45/hr $.03–$.039/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Copyediting, business/sales $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Copyediting, medical/STEM $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT $51–$60/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
DESIGN/LAYOUT/FORMATTING
Design/layout/formatting (print) $46–$50/hr $.02–$.029/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Design/layout/formatting (electronic) $46–$50/hr $.03–$.039/wd 7–10 pages/hr
DEVELOPMENTAL EDITING
Developmental editing, fiction $46–$50/hr $.03–$.039/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Developmental editing, nonfiction $51–$60/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Developmental editing, business/sales $51–$60/hr $.07–$.079/wd 4–6 pages/hr
Developmental editing, medical/STEM $61–$70/hr $.06–$.069/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Developmental editing, book doctoring $61–$70/hr $.06–$.069/wd 4–6 pages/hr
INDEXING $36–$40/hr $.02–$.029/wd 7–10 pages/hr
LINE EDITING $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
MARKETING/PROMOTION $51–$60/hr $.08–$.089/wd 4–6 pages/hr
PERMISSIONS $46–$50/hr $.04–$.049/wd 21–25 pages/hr
PROJECT MANAGEMENT $51–$60/hr $.04–$.049/wd 4–6 pages/hr
PROOFREADING
Proofreading, fiction $31–$35/hr $.02–$.029/wd 11–15 pages/hr
Proofreading, nonfiction $36–$40/hr $.02–$.029/wd 7–10 pages/hr
Proofreading, business/sales $41–$45/hr $.04–$.049/wd 7–10 pages/hr
Proofreading, medical/STEM $41–$45/hr $.03–$.039/wd 4–6 pages/hr
RESEARCH/FACT CHECKING $46–$50/hr $.05–$.059/wd 4–6 pages/hr
SENSITIVITY READS $31–$35/hr $.01–$.019/wd 11–15 pages/hr
TRANSCRIPTION $36–$40/hr $.09–$.10/wd 4–6 pages/hr
TRANSLATION $46–$50/hr $.11–$.15/wd 1–3 pages/hr
WRITING (WORK-FOR-HIRE ONLY)
Writing (work-for-hire only), ghostwriting full-length fiction $51–$60/hr $.09–$.10/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), ghostwriting full-length nonfiction $61–$70/hr $.11–$.15/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), business/sales $61–$70/hr $.16–$.20/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), medical/STEM $61–$70/hr $.16–$.20/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), journalism $51–$60/hr $.31–$.50/wd 1–3 pages/hr
Writing (work-for-hire only), other $51–$60/hr $.21–$.30/wd 1–3 pages/hr
OTHER (based on write-in response) $41–$45/hr $.05–$.059/wd 4–6 pages/hr
**Per-word rates and pages per hour may or may not apply to all projects. Respondents were given the option of providing these responses or selecting “Other” or “N/A.” Data for each column in the rates chart was collected and generated independently. The columns are not dependent on or derived from each other.

EFA Members: For more information, see the Rates Survey Report and Rates Survey Information pages.